Cranial nerve 2 confrontation test

About Press Copyright Contact us Creators Advertise Developers Terms Privacy Policy & Safety How YouTube works Test new features Press Copyright Contact us Creators. Cranial Nerve Examination for Nurses During the Head-to-Toe Assessment Cranial Nerve I. To test cranial nerve I...olfactory nerve: Have the patient close their eyes and place something with a pleasant smell under the nose and have them identify it. Cranial Nerve II. To test cranial nerve II.optic nerve: Perform the confrontation visual field test and visual acuity test with a Snellen chart Cranial Nerves: Exam Demostration . Visual acuity, visual fields, pupillary reflex [CN 2, 3, extraocular movements (EOM)] Visual acuity testing examines the integrity of the optic nerves (CN2) and the optic pathways, including the visual cortex.. Visual field testing (CN 2) examines the integrity of the optic nerves (CN2) and the optic pathways. . Remember that the axons from the nasal visual.

Cranial Nerve II Peripheral Vision Confrontation - YouTub

Confrontation visual field testing. Confrontation visual field testing involves having the patient looking directly at your eye or nose and testing each quadrant in the patient's visual field by having them count the number of fingers that you are showing. This is a test of one eye at a time. It is useful for the examiner to close one eye so. Cranial Nerve 2: Optic Nerve. (visual acuity and peripheral fields) Snellen Chart & Confrontation Test. 1. Ask the client to stand 20 feet away from the Snellen Chart. 2. Have the client read the letters in each row until they miss more than 2 letters in a row. Then, have them read back to the line that they did accurately

The following equipment is required for a Cranial Nerve Examination: Cotton ball. Safety pin. Pen torch (source of light) Tongue blade. Tuning fork (512 Hz) 1.) Olfactory Nerve (I) The olfactory is a sensory nerve, and damage in the nasal epithelium or the basal gangliamight impair the ability to discriminate different smells Confrontation visual field testing involves having the patient looking directly at your eye or nose and testing each quadrant in the patient's visual field by having them count the number of fingers that you are showing. This is a test of one eye at a time 2 Confrontation Visual Fields for Ophthalmologists in Training Stephen C. Pollock, MD Introduction In the human brain, more neurons and synapses are devoted to vision than to any other sensory or motor function (Walsh & Hoyt's Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 6th ed, 2005, p.3)

Cranial Nerve Examination - Registered Nurse R

The cranial nerve exam is a type of neurological examination. It is used to identify problems with the cranial nerves by physical examination. It has nine components. Each test is designed to assess the status of one or more of the twelve cranial nerves (I-XII). These components correspond to testing the sense of smell (I), visual fields and. How do you check cranial nerve 2 confrontation? A confrontation visual field test is a quick and easy way to measure your overall field of vision. A confrontational field test is a preliminary test conducted by your eye doctor or technician as a basic screening tool CN 2 - Checking Visual Fields By Confrontation •Face patient, roughly 1-2 ft apart, noses @ same level. •Close your R eye, while patient closes their L. Keep other eyes open & look directly @ one another. •Move your L arm out & away, keeping it ~ equidistant from the 2 of you. A raised index finger should be just outside your field of vision

Neurologic Exam: Cranial Nerves Exam Demostratio

  1. Cranial Nerve 2 (Optic): Functional Assessment -Acuity •Using hand held card (held @ 14 Confrontation •Face patient, roughly 1-2 ft apart, noses @ same level. •Close your R eye, while patient •Test one muscle group at a time and compare right to lef
  2. al) cranial nerve, are used only when malingering is suspected. 2nd Cranial nerve For the 2nd (optic) cranial nerve, visual acuity is tested using a Snellen chart for distance vision or a handheld chart for near vision; each eye is assessed.
  3. ation of the Cranial Nerves. When testing the cranial nerves one must be cognizant of asymmetry. The following is a summary of the cranial nerves and their respective functioning. I - Smell. II - Visual acuity, visual fields and ocular fundi. II,III - Pupillary reactions. III,IV,VI - Extra-ocular movements, including opening of the eyes
  4. ation: Optic nerve Author: Lorenzo Crumbie MBBS, BSc • Reviewer: Francesca Salvador MSc Last reviewed: November 13, 2020 Reading time: 18
  5. n1j02 cranial nerve cn cranial nerves function clinical testing olfactory smell smell aromatic substance normal: prohibited to smell ii optic nerve sensory Test 10 2018, questions and answers; Level I Ethics Quiz 1; Confrontation Test (Peripheral visual . fields
  6. Cranial Nerve Assessment. Normal Response. Documentation. Hold a penlight 1 ft. in front of the client's eyes. Ask the client to follow the movements of the penlight with the eyes only. Move the penlight upward, downward, sideward and diagonally. Client's eyes should be able to follow the penlight as it moves
  7. Cranial Nerves formed of sensory fibres only are CN 1 (Olfactory), 2(Optic), &8 (Vestibulo - cochlear) (remember FIAT 128 ) Remember : Cranial nerves which contains parasympathetic fibres are : 3 (Oculomotor), 7 (Facial) ,9 (Glossopharyngeal) & 10 (Vagus) (Remember 1973

Confrontation Visual Fields - University of Iow

Visual field CRANIAL NERVES 7 Near field Far field Color matching Confrontation test 8. CN II - OPTIC NERVE(cont..) Visual acuity- Snellen chart(Far vision) Chart is placed at 20 feet or 6 meter and patient is asked to read it The formula is d/D Where d is 6 meter and D is the distance from which he can read it clearly Normal is 6/6 or 20/20. Cranial Nerve II - Optic Nerve. Next, test the optic nerve. The optic nerve is responsible for visual processes. Assessment of the optic nerve involves the testing of visual acuity, visual fields, and the ocular fundi. Testing visual acuity involves testing near and distant vision. Visual fields are tested by confrontation What is the confrontation test? Gross measure of peripheral vision; compares person's peripheral vision with yours. How do you test for cranial nerve 2? Confrontation and using ophthalmoscope, test visual acuity. How do you test motor and sensory function for cranial nerve 5 5th Cranial nerve. For the 5th (trigeminal) nerve, the 3 sensory divisions (ophthalmic, maxillary, mandibular) are evaluated by using a pinprick to test facial sensation and by brushing a wisp of cotton against the lower or lateral cornea to evaluate the corneal reflex. If facial sensation is lost, the angle of the jaw should be examined.

This is a group graded activity. Assign among your group the following assessment: CN 1 - Olfactory Assessment. CN 2 - Visual Acuity (Snellen Chart) CN 2 - Confrontation Test. CN 3, 4, 6 - Conjugate Eye movement. CN 2, 3 - Pupillary Light reflex. CN 2, 3 - Accommodation test. CN 5 - Motor Assessment PERRLA Eyes. The movements of the pupils are controlled by the nervous system. As a result, when the pupils don't react accordingly to the light test, it shows that there might be some problems on the patient's nervous system, specifically in the optic nerve and oculomotor nerve (cranial nerve II and III) Cranial Nerve Examination Intro (WIIPPPPE) Test peripheral visual fields by confrontation: the patient should look at your nose (and you at theirs). E nsure you and the patient are sitting at the s ame horizontal level, 1m Test ophthalmic (V 1), maxillary (V 2) and mandibular (V 3) sensory branches with cotton wool o Moto

The confrontation test provides a rough estimate of the scope of each visual field. This Cranial nerves III, IV, and VI are tested together because all three supply the extraocular eye muscles (Fig. 7-7). In addition, the oculomotor nerve controls the levator palpebrae superioris muscle, which raises the upper eyelid, and th Grin (Cranial Nerve VII, lower). Stick tongue out (Cranial nerve XII). Rapid tongue movements (test for pseudobulbar palsy). Visual fields by confrontation (Cranial Nerve II). Eye movements (Cranial Nerves III, IV & VI). Reflexes (supinators, biceps, patellar, ankle jerk). Babinski (pyramidal tract). Funduscopy (bilaterally, in twelve seconds.

CN 2+3 'I'm going to shine a light into your eyes please keep looking at the wall chart'. Test direct light reflex and consensual light reflex (CN2&3) * * CN2 is the afferent nerve receiving the light signal, and CN3 is the efferent nerve causing muscle constriction Examine the optic disc and vessels- CN2 CN 3,4+ For this test (known as the confrontation test), hold the pencil 2 to 3 feet to one side of the patient's face while the patient covers the other eye. Move the pencil in turn along the main axes of the field of vision until the patient can see it. Cranial Nerves III, IV, and VI (Ocular Nerves) The hypoglossal nerve is the twelfth paired cranial nerve.. Its name is derived from ancient Greek, 'hypo' meaning under, and 'glossal' meaning tongue.The nerve has a purely somatic motor function, innervating all the extrinsic and intrinsic muscles of the tongue (except the palatoglossus, innervated by vagus nerve).. In this article, we shall look at the anatomy of the hypoglossal. Test 3: Assess visual fields of each eye by confrontation. Ø To perform the confrontation test, position yourself approx. 2 feet away from the client at eye level Ø Have the client cover his left eye while you cover your right eye Ø Look directly at each other with your uncovered eyes Ø Next fully extend your left arm at midline and slowly move one finger (or a pencil) upward from below. cranial nerves. olfactory n. (후각신경) optic n. (시각신경) 1) 시력검사 : Snellen chart, finger counting, hand movement, light perception. 2) 시야검사 - confrontation test(대면검사) : 환자 한쪽 눈을 가리고 검사자는 환자의 손가락의 움직임을 파악할수 있는

Cranial Nerves: Health Assessment Flashcards Quizle

Confrontation Test. B. Cover Test. C. The following term occurs from neuromuscular weakness, oculomotor cranial nerve III damage, or sympathetic nerve dage (e.g. Horner's syndrome). It is a positional defect that gives the person a sleepy appearance and impairs vision. A Cranial Nerve III, IV and VI . Testing Procedures - Convergence. Facing the patient, hold an object such as a pencil about 24 to 36 inches away from the patient. Instruct the patient to focus on the object and then slowly move the object closer to the patient at a steady rate, stopping 1 to 2 inches away from the patient's nose cranial nerves examination and disorders. There are 12 paired cranial nerves in our brain. The first two are purely sensory and located in the brain (cerebr um). are located in the midbrain for eye movement. The remaining 8 nerves are divided equally between pons and medull a. are located in the pons Cranial Nerves: CN 1: Smell Test CN 2: Confrontation Peripheral Test (Vision) Verbiage: Nose is midpoint. Face to face is intact bilaterally by confrontation peripheral test. CN 3, 4, 6: Cardinal Position of Fac

How to Conduct a Cranial Nerve Examination Postgraduate

2 Cranial Nerve Name Mnemonic 1 I Olfactory On Oh 2 II Optic Old Oh 12 pairs of Cranial Nerves Have all equipment needed to test CN I-XII. Alcohol or other smelly stuff Ophthalmoscope Otocsope Eye cover Hirschberg's test Visual fields by confrontation. 9/26/2014 5 Hirschberg's test In diagnosing a third nerve palsy, a complete ocular examination is performed, including pupillary reactivity, extraocular motility, eyelid position, and confrontation visual fields. Additionally, all cranial nerves should be evaluated (2) How do you test cranial nerve 11? 11th Cranial nerve The 11th (spinal accessory) cranial nerve is evaluated by testing the muscles it supplies: By confrontation - the standard method. Get your head at the patient's eye-level 2. Cover your own eye opposite to the patient's covered eye. 3. Ask the patient to fix their gaze between your eyes CRANIAL NERVE CRANIAL NERVE S/M FUNCTION EXAMINATION Ⅰ Olfactory O S Sense of smell Identify odors with eyes closed Ⅱ Optic O S Vision Test peripheral vision with one eye covered Ⅲ Oculomotor O M Pupillary contraction, opening the eye, and most extraocular movements Peripheral vision, eye chart, reaction to light Ⅳ Trochlear T M Downward, inward movement of the eye Test ability to.

How do you perform a confrontation test

The optic nerve, also known as cranial nerve II, extends from the optic disc to the optic chiasma. Lesions in optic nerve causes visual field defects and blindness. Causes Causes Confrontation test. Confrontation visual field testing is a simple and quick visual field assessing method. A confrontational field test requires little or no. 2 . Confrontation Test . 3 . Nystagmus Examination . 4 . Cranial Nerves Examination . Neuro-ophthalmology Examination Pupil Examination. Optic nerve (Sensory) function - Vision . clinical tests. 1) Test visual acuity - with an eye chart, wearing contacts/glasses . 2) Test the visual fields by confrontation - bilateral simultaneous finger-wiggling test. 3) Inspect the optic fundi with an opthalmoscope. 4) Inspect size, shape, & symmetry of pupils. Test Confrontation Test; Nystagmus Examination; Cranial Nerves Examination; Watch Free lecture from Here. Neuro-ophthalmology Examination. 1 Cranial Nerves Examination . Add to Wishlist. Enroll course. Enrolled: 151 students. Duration: Lifetime access.

The glossopharyngeal nerve, CN IX, is the ninth paired cranial nerve. Embryologically, the glossopharyngeal nerve is associated with the derivatives of the third pharyngeal arch. Sensory: Innervates the oropharynx, carotid body and sinus, posterior 1/3 of the tongue, middle ear cavity and Eustachian tube The cranial nerves provide movement, sensation, and autonomic functions for the head and neck: They are also the peripheral components of vision, audition, taste, and smell. They are frequently involved in both central and peripheral disease processes. Their central nuclei are essential to localization within the brainstem DIAGNOSIS. Traumatic right cranial nerve (CN) IV palsy. CLINICAL COURSE. Given the acute, painless onset of the vertical diplopia with a positive Parks-Bielschowsky 3-step test (see Clinical Features and Evaluation, below) for a right CN IV palsy in the absence of vascular risk factors, negative neuroimaging, and in the setting of recent closed head trauma - the diagnosis of traumatic. Chapter 14: 1 What are you assessing when inspecting the cranial nerves 2,3, 5, & 6? 2 List out the areas that you are inspecting when examining the eye. 2- The optic nerve controls central and peripheral vision. Assessment is done on each eye separately while the other eye is covered. A confrontation test assess' visual fields, and the Snellen eye chart is used to test visual acuity

The optic nerve passes back from the posteromedial aspect of the eyeball, and through the optic canal into the middle cranial fossa. The medial fibres from each side cross ( decussate) to the opposite side in the optic chiasm. Beyond this level, each visual pathway receives impulses from the contralateral field of both eyes Cranial nerves contain 2 types of fibers 1) Sensory fibers - that relay sensory information 2) Motor fibers - that relay motor information Since the central portion of retina is rich in rods and cones and is color sensitive, a red pin can be used for confrontation test. A red pin is brought from periphery to the center in all quadrants Examination of the 12 Pairs of Cranial Nerves. The diagnosis of a simple neurological disorder without EEG, CT or MRT scans is clear, manageable and cost-effective.. It consists of a light source, a neurological reflex hammer, a tuning fork and resources such as brushes, cotton swabs, and blunt pins with which a patient's sensitivity can be examined Cranial nerves (CN's, aka cerebral nerves) are nerves emerging directly from the brain and brain stem (cf. spinal nerves which emerge from the spinal cord). Visual acuity test, looking at Snellen chart, cover each eye; Visual field defects (aka confrontation), by covering each eye with the palm, asking patient when they see the object.

Cranial nerve examination - Wikipedi

The cranial nerves for each of these are: 2 for the midbrain (CN 3 & 4), 4 for the pons (CN 5-8), and 4 for the medulla (CN 9-12). It is important to remember that cranial nerves never cross (except for one exception, the 4th CN) and clinical findings are always on the same side as the cranial nerve involved Cranial Nerves - Nerves control your body Ask client to read the Snellen-type chart; check visual fields by confrontation, and conduct an opthalmoscopic examination Nerves # 3 Oculomotor Motor have client close eyes, wipe a wisp of cotton over clients forehead and paranasal sinuses. To test deep sensation, use altering blunt and sharp.

Study Unit 5 - Neuro Cranial Nerves, Eyes, Ears flashcards from Jeness Murrin's University of Saskatchewan class online, or in Brainscape's iPhone or Android app. Learn faster with spaced repetition Get the patient to follow your finger Step 11 - Trigeminal Nerve (CN V) The Trigeminal nerve (CN V) is involved in sensory supply to the face and motor supply to the muscles of mastication. There are 3 sensory branches of the trigeminal nerve: ophthalmic, maxillary and mandibular. Initially test the sensory branches by lightly touching the face with a piece of cotton wool followed by a blunt. CRANIAL NERVE : 3,4 AND 6 occulomotor, trochlar and abducens OCCULOMOTOR: The oculomotor nerve is the third cranial nerve (CN III). It enters the orbit via the superior orbital fissure and innervates extrinsic eye muscles that enable most movements of the eye and that raise the eyelid. The nerve also contains fibers that innervate the intrinsic. The third, fourth, and sixth, cranial nerves show normal extraocular muscles. The fifth cranial nerve shows normal facial sensation and motor function. The seventh cranial nerve shows normal motor function. The eighth shows normal auditory acuity. The ninth cranial nerve shows the palate is midline and elevates symmetrically

Study Cranial Nerves lll, lV, and Vl with vocab flashcards from Joe Anderle's class online, or in Brainscape's iPhone or Android app. Learn faster with spaced repetition The six cardinal fields of gaze - Eye is the important parts oh human body which responsible in the process visualizing many things. There are many parts of eyes and brain that work to just producing an image in our brain. When it comes to the discussion of eyes, we should not miss the importance of six cardinal fields of gaze.Have you been familiar to this term This is an absolute scotoma representing the optic nerve head, or disc, which has no retinal function. You need to be familiar with the types of field defects shown in Figure 1-8 and their significance. (The blind areas are shaded.) In testing visual fields by confrontation, remember nial nerve palsies secondary to compression or infiltration of the affected nerves.2, 3, 15 For many years, PSA (prostate-specific antigen) testing was used as a screening test for prostate carcinoma; however, due to the test's high false positive detection rates, the effective-ness of the test is controversial. When a positive PSA screen Cranial Nerves: Abnormal Findings. Cranial Nerve 2- Optic nerve. Video: Right homonymous hemianopia (right-sided visual field deficit). Description: The patient's visual fields are being tested with gross confrontation. A right sided visual field deficit for both eyes is shown. This is a right hemianopia from a lesion behind the optic chiasm involving the left optic tract, radiation or striate.

Cranial nerve II—Optic Test your patient's visual acuity and have an advanced prac-titioner do a funduscopic exam. ß As shown, screen her visual fields by confrontation. Ask her to look directly into your eyes. Place your hands about 2 feet apart lateral to her ears and ask her to point to you CN II (optic nerve) This requires four separate tests: field, fundi, acuity and pupils. Fields are tested by confrontation, by standing in front of the patient and randomly wiggling fingers in each of the four quadrants of the visual fields ()

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What is a visual confrontation test

In order to examine the cranial nerves the patient should be sitting up. You will need the following equipment: 1. Snellen chart 2. hatpin 3. ophthalmoscope 4. cotton wool 5. tuning fork In general you examine the cranial nerves in numerical order. The only exception to this is considering cranial nerves 2,3,4 and 6 together as these nerves. Examination of the baby's cranial nerve function is often accomplished by observing spontaneous activity. During crying, facial movement (CN VII) Cranial Nerve 7 is observed for fullness or asymmetry.The quality and strength of the cry is a way of looking at (CN IX) Cranial Nerves 9 and (CN X) 10 function.Sucking and swallowing assesses (CN V, VII, IX, X) Cranial Nerves 5, 7, 9, 10, and 12. First Cranial Nerve - Olfactory: ensure both nasal passages are patent test nostrils separately by occluding the opposite side Unilateral loss of smell without nasal disease suggests frontal lobe lesion Second Cranial Nerve - Optic: Test visual acuity inspect the optic fundi ophalmoscopically determine the visual fields by confrontation Third, Firth and Sixt Test each nostril with essence bottles of coffee, vanilla, peppermint. CN II: Optic. With patient wearing glasses, test each eye separately on eye chart/ card using an eye cover. Examine visual fields by confrontation by wiggling fingers 1 foot from pt's ears, asking which they see move. • Keep examiner's head level with patient's head Neurological Examination - Cranial Nerve Exam. A cranial nerve examination should form a key part of any full neurological examination. It should also be a part of your top to toe examination, as cranial nerve deficits are a common sign of stroke or focal neurological pathology. This examination can be performed sitting on a chair or bed

How to Assess the Cranial Nerves - Neurologic Disorders

The trigeminal nerve is a mixed nerve serving motor and sensory functions but also has connections with the third, fourth, sixth, seventh, ninth and tenth cranial nerves, as well as the sympathetic system. The motor division supplies the muscles of mastication, the mylohyoid and the superior belly of the digastric muscle This test also evaluates the conscious perception of vision and facial nerve (CN VII) function. Clinical Stimulus - As one eye is covered, the other eye is tested by directing a hand in its direction in a threatening manner. Clinical Response - In a normal animal the eyelids will close in response to the perceived threat. Afferent Pathways. The 12 cranial nerves and their nuclei are distributed approximately equally between the three brainstem segments (Fig. 17.4). The exceptions are the first and second cranial nerves (nerves I and II), whose neurones project to the cerebral cortex. In addition, the sensory nucleus of nerve V extends from the midbrain to the spinal cord, and the.

PPT - Cranial Nerves Assessment 2009 PowerPointGENERAL APPROACH TO HISTORY AND EXAMINATION - Neurology

Examination of the Cranial Nerves - New York Universit

The cranial portion communicates with the jugular ganglion of the vagus nerve, and innervates the intrinsic muscles of the pharynx through the recurrent laryngeal nerve branch. Examination A lesion or injury to the cranial portion of the spinal accessory nerve is difficult to distinguish from one of the vagal nerve, as described above D33.3 Benign neoplasm of cranial nerves. D35.2 Benign neoplasm of pituitary gland. D35.3 Benign neoplasm of craniopharyngeal duct. D43.3 Neoplasm of uncertain behavior of cranial nerves. D43.8 Neoplasm of uncertain behavior of other specified parts of central nervous system. D44.3 Neoplasm of uncertain behavior of pituitary glan

Cranial nerves examination: Optic nerve Kenhu

Cranial Nerve 2: Optic Nerve. 1.The optic nerve leaves via the optic foramen and forms the optic nerve where it passes posteriorly to form the optic chiasm. 2.Post the optic chiasm all lesions will be contralateral, and form the optic tract (consists ipsilateral temporal and contra-lateral nasal fibres) and synapse at the lateral geniculate. Cranial Nerve 2. Second cranial nerve. It conveys visual information from the retina to the brain. It carries the axons of the retinal ganglion cells which sort at the optic chiasm and continue via the optic tracts to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other important targets include the superior colliculi. Trigeminal Nerve - Light Touch. Tim Milligan November 11, 2015 Cranial Nerves Exam. The 5th cranial nerve, trigeminal, consists of three sensory (V1, V2 and V3) and a motor component, V3. Sensation is tested to light touch with a cotton wisp, temperature with a cold tuning fork and pain with a disposable pin. If the patient complains of. Cranial nerves III (CNIII) (oculomotor), IV (trochlear), and VI (abducens) control the position of the eyeballs; CNIII influences the position of the eyelids and the size of the pupils. In addition to their value in localizing lesions, these three oculomotor nerves (sensory function is limited to proprioception) can reveal subtle changes in. 1. Confrontation visual field test. A common way for your doctor to screen for any problems in your visual field is with a confrontation visual field test. You will be asked to look directly at an object in front of you, (such as the doctor's nose) while one of your eyes is covered

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The sensory portion of cranial nerve V is tested in all . three portions for pain and by testing the corneal reflex . Pain sensation is tested in all three portions of cranial . nerve V by asking the patient to differentiate between thl'! sharp and dull end of a sharp safety pin. FACIAL PAIN (pinprick) perception 1. Normal 2. Increased . 3 Confrontation from periphery Cranial Nerve III: Oculomotor PERRLA Pupils equal round and reactive to light *use size chart below Extraocular movements (EOMs) Medial, upward (in & out), downward (out) Pupil Assessment Normal findings o PERRLA o Size: 2-6 mm Cranial Nerves Assessment: Part 2 (Maher, 2016) 2 Academic Festival, Event 53 [2020 The facial nerve (n. facialis) is a mixed cranial nerve. It is responsible for the movement of most of the facial muscles, except the masticatory muscles, and also for the movement of platysma and the stapedius muscle in the middle ear. Examination of the seventh cranial nerve is based on the patient's facial expression The olfactory nerve (cranial nerve I) is rarely tested because of the deleterious effects of smoking and sinus disease on the sense of smell in the general population. The nerve can be unilaterally damaged by trauma or a tumor of the skull base in the olfactory groove, such as an olfactory groove meningioma (see Fig. 7-9 ) Identify the 12 cranial nerves. · Demonstrate the ability to interpret the test of visual acuity using a snellen chart. · Assess the visual fields by recognizing correct technique for confrontation. · Perform the cover test. · Correctly assess PERRLA (Pupils equal, round, reactive to light and accommodation) 1. Test visual fields by confrontation (cranial nerve II) 2. Test extraocular muscles : corneal light reflex, six cardinal positions of gaze (cranial nerves III,IV, VI) 3. Inspect external eye structures 4. Inpect conjuctivac, sclerae , corneas, irides 5. Test pupil : size, response to light and accommodatio